These critics state that the boundary between juvenile and adult is no longer as clear, as children appear to grow up faster, with more exposure to adult ideas, and as adults more often engage in juvenile behaviors and activities.and they are not receiving all their rights as a trial defendant.It has been found recently that the United States transfers roughly 13,000 juveniles to adult courts every year, with approximately 36% of those transfers involving youth who committed violent offenses.
The rest of the sample was made up of Caucasian (20%), Latino (16%) and other (2%).
At time of arrest almost 40% of the juveniles were age 17, with 30.7% ages 16–17, 19.2% ages 15–16, 6.8% ages 14–15, and 0.3% less than 14 years of age.
In a study that looked at 1,829 youths, from ten to 17 years of age, it was found that females, non-Hispanic whites, and younger juveniles were less likely to be tried in criminal court than males, African Americans, Hispanics, and older youths.
Among the juveniles transferred to criminal court, 68% had one psychiatric disorder and 43% had two or more psychiatric disorders.
In states where a minimum age is specified for all transfer provisions, age 14 is the most common minimum age.
which looked at 7,100 transferred juveniles charged with felonies within 40 of the nation's largest urban counties, violent felony offenses made up 63.5% of the charges made against juvenile defendants in criminal court.
In juvenile court rulings, decisions often take psychosocial factors into account along with current offense severity and the youth's offense history.
In contrast, in criminal proceedings, the severity of the offense and criminal history weigh most heavily in sentencing outcome.
Within this sample of juveniles, 96% percent were male.
A majority of the juvenile defendants were African American (62%).
Upon release, those who pass through the juvenile justice system receive parole-like surveillance along with reintegration programs, reflecting the belief that juvenile behavior can be changed.