The validity of documentary evidence is of paramount interest in many different types of litigation (and all of these situations are actual cases in which Federal Forensic Associates has provided examination, consultation and testimony).
With advances in technology, many documents that could not be analyzed five years ago are now possible sources of important information, such as the answers to questions relating to the method and time period of preparation. Lyter began his career as a forensic chemist for the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, National Laboratory Center in Rockville, Maryland.
This can be captured photographically and makes an excellent court exhibit.
These two ink aging methods are the Sequential Extraction Technique (SET) and Solvent Loss Ratio Method (SLRM).
The SET and SLRM measure certain ink aging parameters of ink that decrease as ink ages on paper. To date, the SET is the only ink aging method that has shown its reliability through outside proficiency testing using “blind” samples (outside proficiency tests in 1995, 2001, and 2011). Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as other materials used to produce the document – paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.) were commercially available on or prior to the date appearing on the document. – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the entries being compared were produced with the ink of the same composition or with different inks (pens). The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing – Examining intersections (areas where two or more pen lines cross) to determine the order of writing (it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time) Sequencing of indented impressions and writings – Examining intersections (areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations) may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
* Expansion to the records that occurred two years after the patient was dead.
* Inks used to write a file were not in existence when the writing allegedly took place.
This is primary for older questioned documents, such as the ‘Hitler Diaries”.
The second form of ink dating is the evaporation of volatile solvents and decay of bands on a chromatogram, This is the technique used to date inks to within six months until they are approximately three to four years old.He has been an instructor at the FBI Academy, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Naval Investigative Service, Air Office of Special Investigation, U. Speckin Lawyers should be interested in the forensic examination of disputed records for three reasons: 1. Ink dating The dating of inks is done in three primary forms. Approximately one-third of all inks manufactured in North America contain a cumerin compound that is unique for its year of manufacture. Also, the first date of production can be established by determining the type and manufacture of the ink.Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. For example, if the questioned document’s date precedes the manufacturing date for the ink used to sign the document, it is established that the document could not have been signed on the date it bears. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file (document). – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the use of various inks on the document(s) fits a pattern that is either consistent with the dates appearing on the document(s) or indicates preparation "at one time" (during a short period of time). Paper folds – It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.Offset marks – When two pieces of paper are pressed together, marks such as writing (and printing) may be transferred from one to another.There are four major approaches (each approach is a group of methods) used for dating inks on documents: 1.